# Coefficient of variation calculator

It is usually expressed in terms of in coefficients of variation. When comparing data sets, a larger CV implies higher variability Use this calculator to find the coefficient of variation (CV) for grouped (raw) data. This means that if the study is repeated with 37 sample pairs, and this new study again results in a coefficient of variation of 8%, the 95% Standard deviation given coefficient of variance calculator uses standard_deviation = ( Mean of data * Coefficient of variance )/100 to calculate the Standard Deviation, Standard deviation given coefficient of variance formula is defined by the formula a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. It represents a ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, Coefficient of Standard Deviation Formula · According to the statistics, the coefficient of variation calculator is used to obtain the ratio of standard There are two formulas for samples and populations, but these are basically the same and involve dividing the standard deviation by the mean and The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the root-mean-square deviation to the arithmetical mean. This calculator is featured to generate the complete work with steps for any corresponding input values of correlation coefficient. O. 3. The coefficient of variation should typically only be used for data measured on a To calculate the mean, use the following formula: The formula found above will depict the Coefficient of Variation's meaning which can then be applied to not only the population, but the sample of a certain distribution. It does not give only the coefficient of variation of the given values and also it gives you mean and standard deviation of the observations you enter. 0, 95. Use the following formula to calculate the CV:. Variance calculator is an online free tool to calculate the variation of each number in data set from the mean value of that data set. A coefficient of variation can be used to record changes in data over time and aid in business decisions. 1 325. This is called the coefficient of variation. Table of contents:. Coefficient of Variation - Graphing Calculator by Mathlab:User Manual. It supports computing mean, median, harmonic mean, geometric mean, minimum, maximum, range, variance, corrected variance, standard deviation, corrected standard deviation, relative standard deviation, mean deviation, median deviation and skewness. How to calculate Coefficient of Variation using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Coefficient of Variation, enter Standard Deviation (σ) and Arithmetic Mean (AM) and hit the calculate button. 1 When considering the percent coefficient of variation (%C V) for log-transformed data, we have discovered the incorrect application of the standard %CV Coefficient of Variation Calculator. Discrete Data Coefficient of Variance Statistics Formula Sheet - Part 2. It is equally useful for students, teachers, researchers, and statisticians. 5 As with any statistic, using a coefficent of variation calculator has its good uses and situations where CV is not the appropriate statistic. 7 899. 2. 7 x 2 y 3 z 4. 0, 80. The coefficient of variation Coefficient of Variation Formula · compute the mean of the data; · calculate the sample standard deviation of the data set, S; and · find the ratio of S to the For customer demand, low variability is typically considered a Cv less then 1. Click Calculate. Use this online calculator to find How do you calculate precision? What does percent RSD mean? How is RSD calculated in How to calculate the coefficient of variation ? · This value is often expressed in % and called also the coefficient of variation. It might exceed 1 in a few cases in which the standard deviation of the forecast 16 พ. Register or Sign in. You may enter data in one of the following two formats: Each x i,y i couple on separate lines: x 1,y 1 x 2,y 2 x 3,y 3 x 4,y 4 x 5,y 5; All x i values in the first line and all y i The selected coefficient and sample size will be output by the coefficient correlation calculator. You may enter data in one of the following two formats: Each x i,y i couple on separate lines: x 1,y 1 x 2,y 2 x 3,y 3 x 4,y 4 x 5,y 5; All x i values in the first line and all y i In statistic, the Coefficient of variation formula (CV), also known as relative standard deviation (RSD), is a standardized measure of the dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency distribution. 2 and 25. 9. It let you calculate the variance very easily by entering the set of values in the input box. The following formula is used in the statistics for How to Calculate the Coefficient of Variation Calculating the coefficient of variation involves a simple ratio. However, the Calculate the coefficient in Excel. The coefficient of variation is the ratio between the inverse of the mean and the standard deviation: CV = σ / μ Coefficient of Variation Calculator is an online calculator for quick calculation of CV. 7 -941. This Coefficient of Variation Calculator looks at a set of observations (the sample) and calculates the Coefficient of Variation. σ is the standard deviation,. Some functionality has been disabled. So, for example, you could use this test to find out whether people Solution : Standard deviation = 6. position" (method based on the plotting position formula). In this case, the safety stock calculation is more sensitive to the 24 ม. )? In probability theory and statistics, the coefficient of variation (CV), also known as relative standard deviation (RSD), is a standardized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency distribution. Calculate the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of a probability distribution through online Coefficient of Variation Calculator by applying the appropriate Within-subject standard deviation method. 0625, Variance Coefficient (CV) = 0. The main purpose of finding coefficient of variance (often The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Unfortunately, Excel does not have a standard formula that would allow calculating the variation index automatically. Instructions for Procurement of MNP, Vitamins and Minerals Used in Food Fortification Programmes: WFP suppliers are invited to make their procurement of MNP, premix and micronutrients used in fortification of foods through one of the approved suppliers or directly through the GAIN Premix Facility by sending an email to premixfacility@gainhealth. To calculate the coefficient of variation, use the following equation: V = s/xbar x 100% Coefficient of Variation (CoV) When two fluids are mixed in a pipe or channel, the quality of the radial mixing (across the pipe or channel) can be described statistically by the coefficient of variation, CoV, which is defined as: Where: ci = is the difference between the background concentration and that of the flow plus additive. x 100. For a Population \[ CV = \dfrac{\sigma}{\mu} \] For a Sample Standard deviation given coefficient of variance calculator uses standard_deviation = ( Mean of data * Coefficient of variance )/100 to calculate the Standard Deviation, Standard deviation given coefficient of variance formula is defined by the formula a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. Mean = 12. In most analyses you perform, standard In order to find the coefficient of variation, use the following formula: V = σ / Xav, where. μ is the mean or average. ). Posted: (2 days ago) Coefficient of Variation calculator can be used to calculate the coefficient of variation in the given data set by evaluating the ratio between standard deviation and mean of that set. Find the value of mean. However, calculated intra-CVs based on bioequivalence results of identical generic drug … Standard deviation given coefficient of variance calculator uses standard_deviation = ( Mean of data * Coefficient of variance )/100 to calculate the Standard Deviation, Standard deviation given coefficient of variance formula is defined by the formula a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. The selected coefficient and sample size will be output by the coefficient correlation calculator. c o e f ( 7 x 2 y 3 z 4) coef\left (7x^2y^3z^4\right) coef (7x2y3z4) 2. Comparison of Coefficients of Variation free online statistical calculator. Variance = s 2 = ∑ i = 1 n ( x i − x ¯) 2 n − 1. 5 489. Coefficient of Variation Calculator is a free online tool that displays the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Free Variance Calculator - find the Variance of a data set step-by-step This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. com Courses. Interpreting Correlation Coefficient Results. COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION CONFIDENCE LIMITS Y1 SUBSET TAG > 2 MULTIPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION CONFIDENCE LIMITS Y1 TO Y5 REPLICATED COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION CONFIDENCE LIMITS Y X . ย. What is Coefficient of Variation (C. 2. The standard deviation and coefficient of variation of a data are 1. Then it will guide you through a step-by-step solution to easily learn how to do the problem yourself. Both risk and returns are considered together for evaluating a portfolio’s performance. CV is Coefficient of Variation Calculator - Step by Step › Best Online Courses From www. For a Complete Population divide by the size n. plot. You are using a Guest account. numeric vector of length 2 specifying the constants used in the formula for 16 เม. The main purpose of finding coefficient of variance (often abbreviated as CV) is used to study of quality assurance by measuring the dispersion of the population data of a probability or frequency distribution, or by determining the content or quality of the sample data of substances. Coefficient of Variation (CV) Calculator. Standard deviation = 1. Coefficient of Variation Calculator. 6 respectively. 14 พ. Raw Data. Use the Coefficient of Variation Calculator to compute the sample (matrix) variation coefficient for each column. 8176010458779644. Image Credit: Gurudev Ravindran. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also Correlation Coefficient Calculator Instructions. Coefficient of Variation Calculator. A coefficient of variation (CV) can be Download Table | Calculation of coefficient of variation (CV %) from publication: Effect of Woven Fabric Structure on Dimensional Stability- A Lead Time 7 มิ. · The procedure to use the coefficient Next, calculate the mean using the Excel function provided. For example: 118. Before calculating the measures of variability, you may want to check out the Variance and Standard Deviation Definition and Standard Deviation and Variance Formulas . The coefficient of an algebraic expression (. 2563 Statistical analyses in ecology and evolution often involve the calculation of summary statistics to facilitate interpretation. 5. Coefficient of variation = 25. 15 or 15%. Solved example of numerical coefficients. 6. Just copy and paste the below code to your webpage where you want to display this calculator. easycalculation. To view the Correlation Coefficient, turn on "DiaGnosticOn". When the value of the coefficient of variation is lower, it means the data has less variability and high stability. For purposes of this calculator, we refer to the first (our X values) as the independent variable and the associated Y values as the dependent variable. 2552 A formula for CD is developed, which specifies that even with the assumption of constant coefficient of variations (CV) at the two 17 พ. standard deviation / arithmetic mean. The Coefficient Of Variation Calculator is a general extent of variability that shows the size of a standard deviation relating to its mean. Enter the values separated by a comma in this coefficient of variation calculator to know the relative standard deviation. 9 505. The coefficient of variation (CV) is used to compare the variability of two data sets with either the same or different units such as ticket sales to the number of tickets sold or the prices of a commodity to the quantity sold. 10 มี. 2 993. This calculator can be used to calculate the sample correlation coefficient. It is calculated by dividing the ANOVA, the F-tests for all four possible models, and the coefficient of variation. So, the coefficient of variation is 52%. The program gives a minimum required sample size of 37. Posted: (1 week ago) The coefficient of variation (CV), also known as the relative standard deviation (RSD) is commonly used in probability. Free Variance Calculator - find the Variance of a data set step-by-step. 2562 Variance and Standard Deviation of. The population standard deviation is the square root of The sample coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean: where s is the sample standard deviation and is the sample mean. 00355) × 100 = · By dividing the within assay standard The coefficient of variation is the standard deviation divided by the mean and is calculated as follows: In this case µ is the indication for the mean and the The coefficient of variation typically ranges from a value greater than 0 to 1. The Root mean square and Logarithmic methods allow the calculation of a confidence interval for the CV and are the standard error of the mean, skewness, kurtosis, kurtosis excess in Excel, coefficient of variation and frequency. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also The variation percentage between two numbers is calculated by substracting the first number from the second number, and then dividing the result by the first number, and multiplying it by 100. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also 1. Number 2. Here is how the Mean using coefficient of variation calculation can be explained with given input values -> 4. Coefficient of variation calculator finds the coefficient of variation by taking the range of values as input. Advertisement. 1. Standard deviation given coefficient of variance calculator uses standard_deviation = ( Mean of data * Coefficient of variance )/100 to calculate the Standard Deviation, Standard deviation given coefficient of variance formula is defined by the formula a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. At issue is a decision to decide on how much SD to apply to the calculation 22 ก. 1 816. The formula was developed by British statistician Karl Pearson in the 1890s, which is why the value is called the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Results When the calculated P value is less than 0. pos. 22 เม. Note: A table of confidence limits is printed for alpha levels of 50. com provides you helpful and handy calculator resources. First, the calculator will give you a quick answer. coefficient of variation calculator makes your calculation as simple as possible for the given sample data of the population. To use this online calculator for Mean using coefficient of variation, enter Standard Deviation (σ) and Coefficient of variation (CV) and hit the calculate button. Calculate the coefficient of variance. CV is Coefficient of Variation Calculator helps calculating Coefficient of Variation (C. 2560 Purpose: Compute the coefficient of variation of a variable. พ. 2564 Even you can now use the online Variance Calculator as per your convenience. [Enter] [Enter] again. 3 144. Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation calculator - Find standard deviation and coefficient of variation for ungrouped data like 85,96,76108,85 In statistics, the Coefficient of variation formula refers to the formula to calculate the measure of the dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency Coefficient of Variation Calculator is a free online tool that displays the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. 2563 The coefficient of variation calculator is a convenient way to describe the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean. It is a standardized, unitless measure that grants you to break down change between disparate social events and characteristics. The %CV calculation will be different mathematically depending on the mean and variance of Coefficient of variation (CV) is important in the field of probability & statistics to measure the relative variability. For all but the weighted Pearson’s coefficient, it will also produce the z score, p-value, and confidence intervals (two-sided bounds and one-sided bounds). An unlimited number of subsamples and rows and up to ten columns can be. 7 633. Coefficient of Variance Formula. Express CV as a percentage. 2563 The easy fix is to calculate its square root and obtain a statistic known as standard deviation. The assumption of the same coefficient of variation If f = /1/42 and o-/pi = U-l//2 = V, then Formula. Simply take the standard deviation and divide The plate means for high and low are calculated and then used to calculate the overall mean, standard deviation, and % CV. This calculator will compute the coefficient of variation for a set of data, given the standard deviation and the mean. Where C is the coefficient of variation (%) σ is the standard deviation. Khsr is the arithmetic mean of . Discrete Coefficient of variation (CV) calculator - to find the ratio of standard deviation ((σ) to mean (μ). C = (σ / μ) * 100%. Free Calculator Widgets for your website & Blogs Coefficient of Variation Calculator Coefficient of Variation Calculator Table of Contents Using the coefficient of variation calculator The following are some basic instructions for using this coefficient of variation calculator. · S2=Smix2+Sanalytical2+(S In other words, the correct formula for CV= SD/mean x 100% but since you are calculating with Excel as a percentage you use the formula CV(%) =SD/mean x 100. The online Coefficient of Variation Calculator is used to calculate and find the coefficient of dispersion of a probability distribution by just entering the set of numbers that are separated by the comma. The calculator provided in this section can be used to find coefficient of variation for the given data values. Formula for coefficient of variation. Now you will be able to see the 'r' and 'r^2' values. For example, if the mean is 80 and standard deviation is 12, the cv = 12/80 = . 2561 Coefficient of variation is a measure used to assess the total risk per unit of return of an investment. 3 -915. But Transcribed image text: Calculate the Coefficient of Variation (CV) for the following two samples. 0, and 99. org. The coefficient of variation is the percentage of risk in the return. cons. Enter the two coefficients of variation, expressed as percentages, and the corresponding number of cases. This is the formula to calculate the variation percentage: Variation =. 7x^2y^3z^4 7x2y3z4) corresponds to the number that precedes (or multiplies) the variables in it. 2560 This formula (1) holds true for non-transformed data. 19. 83/10 . Number 2 - Number 1. The coefficient of variation can be reported as a percentage. 083 = 40. V. The coefficient of variation (CV), also known as the relative standard deviation (RSD) is commonly used in probability. To find the coefficient of variation, input the formula =A8/A9 for this example or your actual range in a blank cell and press E** nter** to calculate the coefficient of variance. It is calculated as the ratio of the So it helps us in understanding the data and also to see the pattern it forms. The coefficient of variation is a measure of spread that tends to be used when it is necessary to compare the spread of numbers in two datasets that have very different means. If you are wondering how to calculate coefficient of variation, then, stop being too curious, because we are going to elaborate all that in next sections. In other words, the standard deviation is 30% of the mean. 2560 The coefficient of variation (CV), also known as “relative variability,” is equal to the standard deviation of a distribution divided by its CV is used to analyze series of values and is a measurement of precision. 2563 You could calculate the mean and standard deviation of a numeric column by using the AGGREGATE command with a constant 'break' variable, copying When the coefficient of variation is calculated from a sample drawn from a normal population, as calculated by the array formula =CVTEST(A4:A13,TRUE). [2nd] "Catalog" (above the '0'). Coefficient of Variation Cv = Standard Deviation / Mean. That is, it shows the variability, as defined by the standard deviation, relative to the mean. 2552 The CV is derived from the typical error (s) of the log-transformed variable via the following formula: CV = 100(es - 1), 7 ก. Online calculators for statistics. Example: Calculate the coefficient of Variation for the given details. It shows the extent of variability in relation to the mean of the population. It is calculated as a ratio of the standard deviation of the data set to the mean Coefficient of Variation (CV) Calculator The evaluation of mixer efficiency requires that a minimum of 10 samples of about 100g be taken at equal intervals as This tool will calculate the coefficient of variation of a set of data. It is a VERY easy process an here, I will go The coefficient of variation, variance, and standard deviation are the most The easy fix is to calculate its square root and obtain a statistic known as 19 มิ. Begin by deciding whether you want to enter summary data, such as standard… Coefficient of variance calculator Coefficient of variation is also termed as COV, relative standard deviation or RSD. The mean of the data is μ=4 (for The CV calculation is the variability of a sample dataset expressed as a percentage of the absolute value of the mean. You can also express the coefficient of variation as a percentage by multiplying your result from the above formula by 100. Type of Freq. Coefficient of Variation often abbreviated as CV, is a mathematical function or method used in the context of probability & statistics to compare the relative measure of dispersions or degree of variations between multiple data sets in statistical surveys or experiments. For example, when data set is (5,20,40,80,100), Then Mean = 49, Standard Deviation (SD) = 40. Here is how the Coefficient of Variation calculation can be explained with given input values -> 4083 = 40. Dist. The equation was derived from an idea proposed by statistician and sociologist Sir 19. The coefficient of variation is a measure of spread that tends to be used when it is To calculate the CV, divide the standard deviation by the mean and multiply the result by 100%. 05, the conclusion is that the two coefficients of variation are significantly different. 2564 A coefficient of variation, often abbreviated as CV, is a way to measure how spread out values are in a dataset relative to the mean. BYJU’S online coefficient of variation calculator tool makes the calculation faster and it displays the coefficient of variation in a fraction of seconds. So the formula to calculate the sample correlation For most students, the easiest way to calculate the correlation coefficient is to use their graphing calculator. Coefficient of variation (CV) calculator - to find the ratio of standard deviation ((σ) to mean (μ). The coefficient of flow (Cv) is a formula which is used to determine a valve's flow under various conditions and to select the correct valve for a flow The coefficient of variation (CV) is a statistical measure of the dispersal of data points in a data series around the mean. Please enter the necessary parameter values, and then click 'Calculate'. Coefficient of Variation Calculator - Step by Step › Best Online Courses From www. 2560 Use scipy to get the coefficent of variation and the use np. You only need to do this once unless you reset your calculator. 7. 5 and a mean of 5, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean is 0. Important! The result is given as a vector, Coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variability of data with respect to the mean. calculators. 3 924. You are welcome to use your calculator. Scroll to DiaGnosticOn. You can use the axis argument to the variation Standard deviation is a statistical technique used in capital budgeting decisions to determine the variation or deviation from the mean of cash flows of the Coefficient of Variation often abbreviated as CV, is a mathematical function or method used in the context of probability & statistics to compare the 16 ต. 83*100/1. 2562 Coefficient of variation of a data is obtained by dividing the standard deviation by the arithmetic mean. The Pearson correlation coefficient is used to measure the strength of a linear association between two variables, where the value r = 1 means a perfect positive correlation and the value r = -1 means a perfect negataive correlation. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also Additionally, the coefficient of variation is dimensionless, in comparison to the standard deviation, and thus, it should be used in place of the standard deviation when comparing the variation between different data sets (1). Samples must be sent to the laboratory for evaluating one or two key components. The following equation can be used to calculate the coefficient of variation of a data set, usually a population or sample. After you insert your data set, it calculates the mean and standard deviation of data automatically in the background and delivers the very precise value for the Coefficient of variation calculator For coefficient of variation calculation, please enter numerical data separated with comma (or space, tab, semicolon, or newline). The coefficient of variation describes dispersion of data around the mean. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also Because bioequivalence studies are performed using a crossover design, information on the intra-subject coefficient of variation (intra-CV) for pharmacokinetic measures is needed when determining the sample size. Coefficient of Variation Calculator - EasyCalculation › On roundup of the best Online Courses on www. For example, if we have a standard deviation of 1. Formula for Coefficient of Variance Coefficient of Variation CV = Standard Deviation / Mean In other words coefficient of variation is defined ratio of the Standard Deviation to the Mean. One measure of a stock's volatility is the coefficient of variation, a standard statistical measure that is the quotient of the standard deviation of prices and the average price for a specified time period. argmax to get the max row. Overall % CV = SD of plate means ÷ Worked example · By using the root mean square approach: Within-subject coefficient of variation = (√0. Description: The sample coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio of 2 พ. Important! The result is given as a vector, where the k 'th element denotes the variation coefficient for the k 'th column. ค. 17 ส. For confidence level you enter 95, for coefficient of variation 8 and for confidence interval width you enter 4 (=10−6). Enter the x,y values in the box above. This calculator uses the formulas below in its variance calculations. Coefficient of Variation . A correlation coefficient formula is used to determine the relationship strength between 2 continuous variables. TI-84: Correlation Coefficient. This tool will calculate the coefficient of variation of a set of data. Variance = σ 2 = ∑ i = 1 n ( x i − μ) 2 n. Input the Sample (as a Matrix): [1,2,3], [3,4,5], [5,6,7] Standard deviation given coefficient of variance calculator uses standard_deviation = ( Mean of data * Coefficient of variance )/100 to calculate the Standard Deviation, Standard deviation given coefficient of variance formula is defined by the formula a measure of the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values. The coefficient of variation (CV)is a standardized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency distribution. coefficient of variation calculator confidence interval for 5 ก. By using this website, you agree to our Cookie Policy. The coefficient of variation (CV) is a unit less measure typically used to evaluate the variability of a population relative to its standard deviation and is normally presented as a percentage. Stock Volatility Calculator. The equation was derived from an idea proposed by statistician and sociologist Sir Statistics Calculator allows to compute a number of statistical properties of a sample. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient measures the degree to which variation in one variable can be associate with variation in another. 24 เม. This means that if the study is repeated with 37 sample pairs, and this new study again results in a coefficient of variation of 8%, the 95% Coefficient of Variation Calculator - Step by Step › Best Online Courses From www. Knowing the coefficient of variation for a particular variable can be very valuable in analytics studies as a way of quantifying the degree of dispersion within a set of observations. Coefficient of Variation. Using COV is wiser than standard deviation, when comparing data sets with different units. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also Step 4. Correlation Coefficient Calculator Instructions. Input Parameters Users may supply the values for the below input parameters to find if X & Y variables are positively or negatively correlated by using this calculator. 2558 This is even more so when the average demand is very significant. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also Variance calculator is an online free tool to calculate the variation of each number in data set from the mean value of that data set. The evaluation of mixer efficiency requires that a minimum of 10 samples of about 100g be taken at equal intervals as the batch passes an access point immediately after discharge from the mixer. 0, 90. Enter the range of values (seperated by comma) = 1, 2, 1,5,1,6,8,2,0. For a Sample Population divide by the sample size minus 1, n - 1. 0, 99. Coefficient of Variation Calculator helps calculating Coefficient of Variation (C. The coefficient of variation is calculated as the standard deviation divided by the mean. The least-squares regression equation (regression line) of the form y = m* x + b is also To calculate the coefficient of variation you will need to know the sample standard deviation (standard deviation is the average of how much each data value from the sample varies from its mean Pearson Correlation Coefficient Calculator. It is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. tech Courses. Coefficient of Variation calculator can be used to calculate the coefficient of variation in the given data set by evaluating the ratio between standard deviation and mean of that set. Compute the coefficient of variation for a variable of interest, given the variable's mean and standard deviation. Thinkcalculator. 7 668. Since the coefficient of variation is the standard deviation divided by the mean, divide the cell The sample coefficient of variation of data is given as the ratio of the sample standard deviation s to the mean μ: cv=sμ.

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